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1.2 Respond to a changing climate

Climate change will result in more frequent and intense bushfires, heatwaves, droughts, extreme rainfall events and coastal inundation in coming decades.1 Victorians are already seeing climate change affect society, the economy and the environment, most recently in extreme droughts, floods, and catastrophic bushfires. It also affects Victoria’s First Nations peoples, whose traditional lands and waters are heavily impacted. These impacts can be broad and widespread for the whole community. For example, a heatwave can increase demands on the health system, disrupt public transport, and cause a loss of power supply.2 Flooding from stormwater can displace people from their homes and damage buildings.3 Climate change is already increasing the death rate from warm season heat-related deaths on every continent.4


Infrastructure contributes to climate change by generating greenhouse gas emissions from its direct operations, the materials used in its construction, and the activities it enables.5 For example, transport emissions have increased more than 60% since 1990, accounting for around one-fifth of total emissions in 2019.6 The infrastructure Victoria builds today can lock in future emissions,7 especially without a plan to convert it to zero emissions technology later.

New infrastructure must also function in a warmer, drier climate and be resilient to more extreme weather. These changes affect infrastructure’s performance under extreme conditions, and the demand for it.8 Changing operating conditions may require changes to the location, design, construction, operation, maintenance and upgrade of infrastructure, and in some cases reassessing assets’ continued viability. The infrastructure decisions Victoria makes now will affect its climate change response in coming decades and constrain future choices.


The last comprehensive assessment of climate change risk to Victoria’s infrastructure was produced in 2007.9 Evidence produced since means the climate consequences for infrastructure are now better understood and can be better incorporated into infrastructure and built environment frameworks.10 For example, using the most up to date information available on the likely future climate11 would support building homes accordingly. Shorter infrastructure life or planning for major future retrofits may need to be considered if Victoria is to achieve its net zero emissions goal.

Climate change introduces new risks

Victorian average temperatures have increased 1.2°C since official records began in 1910,12 with temperatures tracking towards the higher range of emissions pathways.13

The mean sea level for Melbourne has risen 2 millimetres each year since 1966.14 Victoria has experienced an increase in dangerous fire weather and length of fire seasons since the 1950s.15

By the 2050s, under a high emissions scenario and compared with the period of 1986–2005, Victoria could experience:16

Average annual temperature increases of up to 2.4c 300dpi
Average annual temperature increases of up to 2.4°C.
More intense downpours 300dpi
More intense downpours.
Sea levels rising by around 24 centimetres 300dpi
Sea levels rising by around 24 centimetres.

Even with strong global emissions reductions, the effects of this warmer, drier future climate will vary across regions. For instance, projected changes in temperature are higher inland compared with coastal areas.17 Summer rainfall has increased in the north, but winter rainfall has declined statewide,18 with winter rainfall tracking towards the higher emissions pathway19 and average annual rainfall declining overall.

Double the number of very hot day 300dpi
Double the number of very hot days.
Declines in cool season rainfall 300dpijpg
Declines in cool season rainfall.
Longer fire seasons with up to double the number of fire danger days 300dpi
Longer fire seasons with up to double the number of ‘high’ fire danger days.
Declines in alpine snowfall 300dpi
Declines in alpine snowfall of 35–75%

While average changes might seem small, they reflect significant extremes of heat and rainfall that can be very challenging for people, infrastructure and the environment. At the time of writing, 34 out of Victoria’s 79 local councils have recognised, acknowledged or declared a climate emergency.20

Climate change means less water in storages

Water infrastructure and supply are acutely vulnerable to climate change impacts. Figure 5 shows that rainfall in Victoria is projected to decrease. A warmer, drier climate means less rainfall flowing into Victoria’s rivers and dams, putting more pressure on urban water supplies. Water infrastructure will also be affected by more frequent extreme rainfall events, movement and changes in groundwater, and higher average temperatures with lower average rainfall. This suggests higher risks of water shortages and drainage and sewerage damage from stormwater flooding.21 More frequent and intense bushfires also risk damage to catchments and water storages, from ash and debris contaminating the water supply.22

Water resource and supply planning23 incorporates climate change projections and scenarios, and increased monitoring, to better understand potential future water availability.24 Combined with high population growth, water shortages could emerge in Melbourne as soon as 202825 under a high climate change scenario, with even a mid-range scenario seeing shortages by 2043.26 Shortfalls may occur earlier in some regional areas, including as early as 2025 in areas serviced by Coliban Water

which includes Bendigo27 and 2031 in areas serviced by Greater Western Water which includes Bacchus Marsh, Melton, Sunbury and parts of the Macedon Ranges.28 Drought will continue to be a feature of Victoria’s climate and is acutely felt by regional Victorians and the agricultural sector. Agriculture is Victoria’s largest water user,29 and a significant regional employer.30

Climate change poses a risk to agriculture in every Victorian region.31 For example, the agriculture sector incurs almost half of the total economic impacts from a severe heatwave.32 The Victorian Government will invest $20 million from 2021–22 to 2025–26 to accelerate Victoria’s agriculture sector response to a changing climate.33

Climate change is increasing the intensity and frequency of hot days and heatwaves, exacerbating any drought conditions. The severity of the millennium drought has been linked to human-induced climate change,34 and time spent in drought is projected to increase across southern Australia.35 During droughts, the warmer, drier weather increases water demand and reduces water storages. Victoria will need to increase resilience and prepare for longer, more intense future droughts

Figure 5 Victoria will get drier as rainfall decreases 300dpi 1
Figure 5: Victoria will get drier as rainfall decreases.

This map shows the projected percentage change in water runoff into Victoria’s basins under a medium-impact scenario by 2065, relative to 1986 to 2005. In this scenario, future runoff and streamflow in Victoria will likely decline as less future rainfall is projected, particularly cool season rainfall important for water storage filling. Higher potential evapotranspiration — which is surface evaporation, soil moisture evaporation and plant transpiration combined — is also predicted. This is just one of many scenarios, with projections ranging from zero decrease in runoff to high decreases in runoff.
Source: Hope, P. et al., A synthesis of findings from the Victorian Climate Initiative (VicCl), Australian Bureau of Meteorology, 2017, pp. 37–45.

Victoria will be at risk from more frequent and intense bushfires

Victoria is one of the most fire prone places on Earth.36 The 2009 Black Saturday bushfires and the 2019–20 summer bushfires in East Gippsland and the state’s north-east resulted in significant loss of life, property, wildlife, and natural ecosystems. More intense fire behaviour, increased fire activity, longer and earlier fire seasons, and droughts are clearly linked to climate change.37 In the 2019–20 Victorian summer bushfires, more than 300 homes were destroyed and 1.2 million hectares of land was burnt – making it the largest bushfire since 1939.38 It affected at least 60% of the state’s national parks and nature reserves,39 impacting significant environmental assets and biodiversity.

The bushfires revealed the region’s vulnerabilities, with communities and visitors cut off and in direct danger, including more than a thousand evacuated by sea from Mallacoota.

Bushfires highlight risks to electricity, telecommunications, water supply and transport infrastructure, among other vulnerabilities. Without access to critical phone and internet connections for emergency management information, people are at greater risk,40 including local residents, and holidaymakers who are less likely to have a bushfire plan.

Recommendations to respond to climate change

Infrastructure Victoria makes the following recommendations to help respond to a changing climate. These are further complemented by recommendations to navigate the energy transition (see section 1.1), improve urban open space and tree canopy (see recommendations 37 and 77), build resilience to emergencies (see section 1.3), and respond to climate risks in regional areas (see section 4.3). Many more of our recommendations in other sections have climate benefits, including improvements to land use planning and transport networks.

Recommendation 11: Specify climate scenarios and carbon value in assessing infrastructure

In the next year, update and expand practical instructions for government agencies on integrating climate-related risks into infrastructure assessments. This should include high, medium and low future climate change scenarios, transitional risks and valuing emission reductions.

Current Victorian Government infrastructure investment guidance observes the Climate Change Act 2017 requirement to consider climate risk,41 but has not provided detailed advice on doing so and includes some outdated information.42 At a minimum, the Victorian Government should update this guidance to explicitly determine climate scenarios for assessing infrastructure resilience, such as a future with 1.5°C of warming, and potentially more extreme scenarios. It should also explicitly advise on the appropriate method of calculating the value of avoided carbon emissions, for use in calculating emission reduction benefits. The approaches recommended should consider recognised data,43 research,44 systems and tools.

The infrastructure Victoria builds now will exist long afterwards and must keep performing in a changing climate. But the Victorian Government has no infrastructure performance benchmark for future climate conditions. This creates difficulties for infrastructure planners, developers and operators in assessing and responding to climate change. It also means climate risk assessments use different assumptions and methodologies in infrastructure assessments, making comparisons difficult.

Producing new, specific guidance on assessing climate risk can complement existing infrastructure investment guidelines, including on future climate scenarios, assumptions, and the value of emission reductions.

Carbon valuation is a well-established tool to measure the value of emission reductions in economic assessments of proposals. Current Victorian carbon valuation guidance was prepared in 2013, relies on the since-repealed national carbon pricing mechanism,45 and does not consider Victoria’s goal to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.46 It does not clarify appropriate emissions to count, such as whether to include emissions embodied in materials, those generated by lifetime operation of the infrastructure, or indirect emissions from energy use or emissions enabled by the proposal. In updating guidance, the Victorian Government can draw on a growing body of national and international literature on using scenarios to assess climate-related risks,47 and guidance on emissions measurement and carbon valuation.48
Specific guidance for government agencies can encourage and make it easier for strategic planners and project developers to assess their climate risks. It fosters greater consistency, improving comparability across sectors and projects and contributing to a more efficient climate response. Better assessments support better decisions, reducing the risk of stranded assets or avoidable future refurbishment and retrofit, and help agencies meet their obligations under the Climate Change Act 2017, including emission reduction targets.49 For example, the Guidelines for Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Water Availability50 provide a consistent approach for applying high, medium and low climate scenarios, and considers population growth and water use behaviour.

Recommendation 12: Strategically review climate consequences for infrastructure

Strategically review the climate change consequences for Victoria’s infrastructure needs and priorities, beginning in November 2021 after delivering the adaptation plans under the Climate Change Act 2017.

Victoria can take a strategic approach to enhancing the climate resilience of its infrastructure, informed by a clear understanding of climate risks across regions and infrastructure sectors, with options to reduce those risks. This can improve the design, construction,51 operation, maintenance and renewal52 of Victoria’s infrastructure to reduce its vulnerability to adverse impacts, build economic and social resilience, and reduce emissions. For example, incorporating water sensitive design into land use planning can help reduce the impact of flood risk to homes and other infrastructure.53 No current and comprehensive assessment catalogues climate risks for Victoria’s infrastructure.54 This makes the process for identifying and assessing material risks to infrastructure more difficult, leading to inconsistent or incomparable assessments. As a result, Victoria’s infrastructure may not perform as predicted in the future climate, and infrastructure planning could miss cost-effective opportunities to reduce emissions.

Victoria’s evidence base and policy environment for climate action is evolving rapidly. The Victorian Government has published the first science report under the Climate Change Act 2017,55 and released local-scale climate projections that will enable detailed analysis of potential climate impacts.56 In May 2021, it released Victoria’s climate change strategy and emission reduction pledges, with targets to reduce emissions from 2005 levels by 28–33% by 2025, and 45–50% by 2030.57 Work is underway to develop adaptation action plans for all major sectors and systems which are expected by October 2021.58 This process will continue, with new targets, pledges and plans set at five-yearly intervals. The right time for a strategic review is following the delivery of the first set of adaptation plans. While the review would support some of the adaptation priorities in Victoria’s Climate Change Strategy, starting earlier would likely duplicate efforts already underway across the Victorian Government. By commencing afterwards, from November 2021, all evidence generated could provide a contemporary, comprehensive basis to assess Victoria’s infrastructure needs and priorities to support the transition to a net zero emissions, climate resilient state. The strategic review could consolidate the evidence, identify any remaining gaps and consequences, interdependencies, immediate and medium-term actions,59 and provide strong evidence-based needs and priorities for infrastructure investment. This could then inform the review of the 2030 interim emissions target due in 2023; the next round of sector pledges due in 2025; and subsequent adaptation plans due in 2026.60

Responses may include identifying investment priorities, updating land use planning policies,61 strengthening building codes and standards,62 updating regional and sectoral strategies, or undertaking further research63 and analysis to improve understanding of risks and potential responses that build in infrastructure resilience.64

Recommendation 13: Consider all water supply sources

Consider all water sources for supply augmentation, including identifying and addressing barriers to purified recycled drinking water within the next 10 years. When planning for future water supply, investigate all options including, but not limited to recycled water, seawater desalination, stormwater harvesting and better use of the water grid.

Climate change pressures and risks are already affecting Victoria’s water supplies and infrastructure. Along with population growth and increasing uses of water, how we plan and apply water conservation options65 will become more critical in the future for water security.

The Victorian Government should consider all alternative water sources, such as recycled water, stormwater, and seawater66 which, unlike water from rivers and aquifers, are not dependent on rain and are less affected by climate change.67 Currently, the use of purified recycled water for drinking is constrained by the Victorian Government’s policy opposition,68 and the requirement for dedicated distribution infrastructure which dramatically increases the cost of use. Allowing all viable technologies and options to be equally considered helps decision-makers choose water options that are efficient, fit for purpose, sustainable and affordable.

Recycled water and stormwater can be made safe for drinking and can be major water supply augmentation options,69 noting that recycled water’s quality and quantity are more predictable than treated stormwater. Recycled water can be cheaper to produce than desalinated water and could be a more flexible part of water networks than decentralised schemes.70 People drink purified recycled water in Western Australia, and internationally in Singapore, California and Namibia.71

Stormwater harvesting and reuse projects can be viable where there is clear policy supporting the use of stormwater for drinking.72 Removing untreated stormwater from receiving waterways improves water quality and flow while also improving water security.73 In some cases, bulk use of stormwater for other purposes, such as watering sporting fields and increasing tree canopy coverage, can reduce pressure on drinking water supplies.

The Victorian Government should remove current policy restrictions to allow evaluation of all water augmentation options based on their economic merit, health and environmental impacts.74 This includes allowing consideration of purified recycled drinking water and removing restrictions on moving water between regions using the water grid. Better use of the water grid can delay using more expensive supply options or new investment in water plants.75 The health risks of purified recycled water must be carefully managed, with proper monitoring, oversight, and adherence to Australian guidelines and standards.76 Taking steps toward drinking purified recycled water would likely include community education to improve water literacy, better regulatory frameworks to manage health risks, and capacity and capability building for regulators. Victorian households appear supportive of recycled drinking water when it secures supply and does not increase their water bill.77

The Victorian Government should build the community’s understanding of the use of alternative water sources, develop guidance on trade-off decisions, and commission health studies and investigations into achieving safe purified recycled drinking water. It should also consider ways for economically viable infrastructure to be piloted and monitored, such as Western Australia’s Groundwater Replenishment Trial.78

Recommendation 14: Progress integrated water cycle management

Within five years, accelerate progress toward an integrated model of water cycle management, starting by clarifying policy settings to allow the better use of stormwater and recycled water.

Climate change is making parts of Victoria drier, and population growth places pressure on water supplies from increasing consumption and sewage volumes. Urban expansion causes more runoff from impervious surfaces such as roads, paths and buildings. The environment absorbs less stormwater in these places, with more untreated and potentially polluted water flowing into waterways.79 The way Victoria plans, manages, applies relevant regulations,80 and delivers water must evolve to use water more wisely. For example, non-conventional water sources such as stormwater and recycled water offer significant potential to augment existing supply, recharge aquifers and strengthen stream flows.81 In 2016, 337 gigalitres of stormwater was ‘lost’ to waterways and 276 gigalitres of treated wastewater ended up in the sea. That same year, Melbourne’s total water consumption was about 516 gigalitres.82 More recycled water and stormwater use would support the resilience of the water system.83

Current policy arrangements make it difficult to integrate innovative uses of water across the water cycle. Reflecting historical development, different entities share responsibilities for water supply, wastewater, stormwater and waterway health.84 Victorian Government stormwater policies are implemented almost exclusively through land use planning policy and building codes which focus on mitigating the risk of floods through drainage,85 with local governments responsible for most street and local drainage infrastructure.86

A more integrated model of water cycle management promotes a collaborative planning approach that brings together all elements of the water cycle.87 Diversifying supply reduces the need for expensive upgrades,88 allows stormwater to be used for recreational lakes and wetland habitats,89 and reduces pollution in waterways. It supports environmental, health and amenity improvements to public spaces90 by enabling greater flows to habitat corridors,91 increasing permeable surfaces,92 and supporting increased tree canopy cover.93 For example, Moonee Ponds Creek’s Chain of Ponds Collaboration94 has improved amenity and helped manage flood and pollution risks.95 The Victorian Government supports an integrated approach,96 but implementation is challenging for different policy, planning and regulatory reasons. While some progress is occurring through the Integrated Water Management Forums,97 continued effort is needed to promote water-sensitive city ideas into non-water sectors, including in the design of new precincts, buildings and infrastructure. Within five years, the Victorian Government should accelerate progress toward integrated water cycle management, bringing stormwater and recycled water into existing frameworks. Initiatives to address current barriers should align with community preferences98 and may include:

  • Identifying priority opportunities to improve health and sustainability outcomes by recycling wastewater
  • Reviewing land use and water planning policies101 and frameworks to identify and address barriers to integration, such as guidance on meeting targets,102 best use of recycled water103 and land acquisition104 requirements
  • Clarifying goals, funding arrangements, and roles and responsibilities for stormwater management
  • Treat stormwater and recycled water as long-term assessments, and include them in water planning, cost-sharing and entitlement frameworks105
  • Further including Traditional Owners in water planning and management
  • Better integrating local and system-wide water planning.

Recommendation 15: Improve decision-making for urban water investment

In the next five years, clearly allocate the roles and responsibilities for urban water systems and major supply augmentation planning.

Securing Victoria’s water supplies in a climate-constrained future will require collaborative and integrated planning, ongoing community engagement,106 and clear investment and funding arrangements.107 Ambiguous responsibilities can impede responsive and considered investment decisions, causing delays when there is ample water supply, or rushed and potentially unwise decisions when water is scarce.

After the millennium drought, the Productivity Commission concluded some state government decisions to invest in new water infrastructure were potentially unnecessary or ill-timed.108 Similarly, the Commission questioned decisions to intervene in specific investment decisions, concluding that interventions should be determined through clear planning processes, following review by an appropriate independent regulator.109 The major investments taken to secure water during the millennium drought revealed the vulnerabilities of traditional approaches to water planning.110 While water authorities have made some improvements to water planning since the millennium drought, the ultimate authority to make decisions on water infrastructure remains unclear. The Victorian Government has provided guidance on the governance and legislative framework that regulates the Victorian water industry,111 but this does not specify who can decide to invest in future major water supply projects. Public water corporations provide many water services,112 including investing in infrastructure to support their core functions. At present, Victoria uses a mix of central and delegated investment decisions with no clear thresholds between them.

There is no clear mechanism for coordinated water supply planning to identify and escalate major investment needs with system-wide benefits. Where water service provision has been separated from government policy-making functions, it has delivered more cost-efficient water services in Australia.113 Governments should clearly allocate roles and responsibilities for urban water systems and major supply augmentation planning, recognising that ultimate responsibility rests with them.114 The Victorian Government should clearly allocate roles and responsibilities including four main elements:

  • Assign responsibility for strategic urban water planning to a body, such as the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Melbourne Water or an independent entity, to coordinate existing planning, clarify the sequence of actions and identify the need and timing for major system augmentation115
  • Assign a body to take ownership of major system augmentations, integrate ongoing engagement,116 and transparently assess the investment options
  • Provide independent technical and economic regulation through an appropriate independent and transparent oversight mechanism117
  • Clearly specify and delegate investment decisions within the normal operating scope of public water corporations, and allow them to be made independently, subject only to the approval of the regulator.

Our research suggests that delegating investment decisions within the normal operating scope of those entities would be appropriate, and would support more efficient long-term planning and investment.118 it could also allow public water corporations to better prioritise the interests of water customers, as around 60% of Victorian households want to be more engaged in long-term water infrastructure planning.119

Recommendation 16: Strengthen agricultural water security by modernising irrigation

In the next 30 years, contribute funding toward planning and delivery of water infrastructure and irrigation modernisation projects across Victoria.

Agriculture needs a secure water supply to grow fresh produce and raise livestock. Farmers use water to irrigate crops and pasture, apply pesticide and fertiliser, cool crops and control frost.120 Scarce water supplies can interrupt agricultural production, and threaten regional incomes and jobs. Victoria’s rainfall patterns are already changing, affecting farming operations and disrupting traditional growing patterns.121 Climate projections indicate these trends will continue. For example, the future climates of Hamilton and Warrnambool could be hotter and drier by 2050, more like the current climate of Benalla today.122 Protecting and adapting farming for the future means securing reliable, sustainable water supplies.123 Victoria is Australia’s largest agriculture producer, producing

$15.9 billion worth of agricultural product from only 11.5 million hectares of land.124 Better water infrastructure can support agriculture’s long-term future and prosperity. Victorian agriculture’s growth prospects rely on this infrastructure, particularly highly water-dependent sectors like dairy and horticulture. When coupled with adaptation planning, modern water infrastructure can also support agriculture businesses to make changes that allow for continued profitability in the face of rapidly changing climate conditions.

Water infrastructure is generally paid for by water users. However, governments can fund district scale projects generating broader community and environmental benefits, and the planning and research that demonstrates their potential. Better infrastructure planning and delivering upgrades can reduce water wastage and safeguard agricultural water. It can also deliver broader benefits, such as reducing farm run-off into waterways and securing supply chains in the retail, processing and transport industries.

The Victorian Government already supports district-scale irrigation projects, such as the Macalister Irrigation District Modernisation Project in East Gippsland. It can also support early planning and development for potential water infrastructure projects.125 This can help find new sources of water, such as groundwater, and assess their technical and economic merits. Irrigation projects can also affect traditional Aboriginal waters and should engage Traditional Owners in water management. For example, the Victorian Government could investigate the development of the Great South Coast’s Dilwyn Formation, a naturally occurring underground aquifer system.126 Technical studies suggest it has an untapped 15 gigalitres of available water.127 Development of the region’s aquifer resources will build water security and support future investment in agriculture.128

Other such projects should be investigated to build on Victoria’s agricultural strengths, which include fertile soils in some areas and existing access to markets. In the context of climate change, water infrastructure for irrigation needs a continuous and long-term focus. This will be complemented by Victorian and Australian Government funding to modernise and improve water efficiency on farms.129 Considering alternative sources for urban water supply, including recycled water (see recommendation 13), can also further help improve water security for the agriculture industry, by minimising competition for water between sectors.130

Recommendation 17: Upgrade Victoria’s emergency water network

In the next year, assess the condition, capacity and security of Victoria’s emergency water supply point network, and upgrade or replace inadequate supply points. Clarify ongoing responsibility for monitoring, maintenance and funding to secure a resilient network.

Agriculture supports one in 16 Victorian jobs,131 many of which are located in regional Victoria.132 Meat, dairy, horticulture and animal fibre, such as wool, comprise the majority of Victoria’s food and fibre export earnings.133 This income, these jobs and the communities they support are threatened by the consequences of climate change. Longer, more intense droughts and increased bushfire risk increase the need for resilience and preparedness. Agriculture is particularly at risk from these events.

Emergency water supply points are a network of 300 places providing water to farmers for stock watering and domestic use during dry conditions. They can also supply water to bushfire-affected livestock, and some sites can be used by firefighters during bushfires. The water is free for stock and domestic use, but farmers must arrange to transport the water (‘water carting’) at their own cost.134 They draw from groundwater through bores, access water channels or reservoirs, or are connected to urban water systems.

Emergency water supply points are one mechanism to help farmers maintain base stock levels through droughts, allowing re-stocking and protecting future production after the drought has passed. No current comprehensive audit or assessment of emergency water supply points exists. Past drought conditions in some regions revealed the poor condition of some supply points, meaning drought assistance funding was needed to rapidly improve them, including establishing replacement points and upgrading existing sites for better access and water flow.135 Some supply points elsewhere are also likely to be in poor condition, difficult to use, or their water source may be unreliable during droughts. The Victorian Government can make sure it has a fit for purpose network of emergency water supply points, optimised for future climatic conditions, to be better prepared for less rainfall and increased bushfire risk. This requires a full assessment of the whole emergency water supply point network across Victoria, matched with future climate projections, to identify places where emergency water supplies may be insufficient. This assessment can audit the existing supply points and determine the condition, capacity and security of their water source during drought. This can be matched with projections of likely drought conditions under future climatic conditions to determine the performance required.
The infrastructure response can be replacement supply points connected to more reliable water sources, new tanks connected to existing supply points, upgrades such as installing meters, or road improvements so trucks can gain better access.136 The assessment should identify ongoing monitoring,137 maintenance and funding138 responsibilities, so the network is available when needed.

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